description of The peap plasma
Plasma Energy’s proprietary process utilizes electrical energy discharged into a waste stream. Within the process chamber, the waste is trapped in a plasma cloud formed by the ionization of an inert gas. The feed stock or waste processing is controlled for reduction, reforming, or destruction within the plasma chamber without incurring combustion. The treatment physically fractures the molecular bonds of waste into simple compounds, converting it to carbon black, elemental metals, silica, plasma processed gases, and heat energy.
The initial plasma process was similar to the operation of an incandescent light bulb, as being such coined the description of the process as an “Incandescent Disposal System”. The waste acts like a light bulb filament, as it is enclosed in an oxygen deficient, sealed container and surrounded by an inert gas. The PEAP then exposes the enclosed refuse to an electrical current that breaks the molecular bonds of the waste and releases intense light and heat (“Plasma Energy”), thus the name “Plasma Energy Arc Process.” This energy, released from the disruption of the molecular bonds and converted to heat and light, adds to the energy injected into the process where temperatures reach above 15,000°F. Byproducts of the process are dependent upon the waste composition and can potentially be used as feedstock to the tire industry, inert filler markets, toner alternatives, synthetic fuel and other common industrial products. In addition, the process reclaims the heat released from the waste destruction through a transfer system for the generation of steam or super-heated water.
There are three unique components of the Plasma Energy Arc Process that significantly distinguish it from alternative gasification, pyrolysis, and other plasma treatments, creating the most technically advanced system available. These components, which are discussed below, are as follows: (1) the electron flow used to disrupt the feed material’s molecular bonds in the process, (2) the use of an inert plasma cloud to give the feed material conductive properties, and (3) the low pressure inert atmosphere, which permits easy and economical control of the process while eliminating the harmful byproducts typical of other and competing processes.
· Electron Flow. The PEAP utilizes multiple plasma arcs (electron flow through a plasma cloud) to transfer its primary energy source, electricity, into the feed stream for breakdown of the feed material into its most elemental form. The process has greater efficiency than other technologies because of its ability to use the primary energy source for reforming, reduction, gasification or destruction. Most, if not all, developing gasification/waste reduction processes use their secondary energy source (i.e., the heat of the plasma gas, the heat of a resistive chamber, the heat of a fuel), or their tertiary energy source (a molten metal or glass bath, or steam injection) for the actual process action. Within the PEAP, however, multiple electric arcs discharge electrons (primary energy source) through a conductive plasma cloud directly into the feed stock. This “plasma arc” simplifies the feed material’s molecular bonds, and releases secondary energy, in the form of heat and light, from the molecular bond breaking. This release of additional energy adds to the breakdown of additional waste/feed stocks, and also provides a source of heat for steam generation and heat recovery.
· Inert Gas Plasma Cloud. While the use of an inert gas and plasma is not unique to the plasma process, the method in which PEAP uses the inert gas plasma is proprietary to the system. During the plasma process, multiple plasma gas sources (arc torches) are directed to the center of the plasma chamber where a distinct plasma cloud is formed. “Plasma” is defined as any ionized gas, and the properties of this ionized gas make the plasma super conductive. Combining this conductive property with the inert properties of the source gas allows for magnetic control of the plasma gas. In addition, the use of multiple plasma sources having the same ion charge form a distinct plasma cloud. During the Plasma process, the feed material stream is placed within the conductive plasma cloud where the electric current (electrons) flow directly into the feed stream. As the feed stock is reduced or vaporized, the conductive medium (plasma) cools to a non-ionized state (inert gas) and will not bond with any other molecules, thus, limiting the emissions generated during the process.
· Low Pressure Inert Atmosphere. Inert atmospheres are used in many processes for control of oxidation and chemical reactions. Plasma Energy utilizes an inert atmosphere for both conductive properties and control of environmental sensitive emissions. The unique aspect of the plasma process is the amount of and pressure at which the inert gas is used. During the plasma process, the inert gas is primarily used for its conductive properties. Most, if not all, competing plasma processes use the plasma gas as a source of heat for processing. To transfer the amount of energy required for processing an equal amount of feed stock in other plasma systems requires very large volumes and pressures of plasma gas. Unlike most systems, the plasma process uses minimal volumes and low-pressure inert plasma gas for processing. One advantage of minimal use of gas is the easy and economical control of the process. Another advantage is that the low gas pressure and flow allow for the conductive plasma properties, but do not require a pure gas to be used. Because an impure gas can be used, the plasma gas can be filtered and reused over again or generated direct from the atmosphere.